To help build the evidence base on ways to make PISA more relevant for a wider range of countries, READ support was used to commission two background reports. The first of these, “The Experiences of Middle-Income Countries Participating in PISA, 2000-2015” provides a systematic review of the experiences of 40 middle-income countries that have participated in PISA over the years. The second report, “Review of Component Skills Assessed and Contextual Data Collection Used in Relevant International Assessments” gives greater insight into possible ways of collaborating across different international assessments, including PISA.