In the framework of the READ Program in 2008-2015 a theoretical model and a bank of items were developed for two versions of SAM for primary school students.

The theoretical framework of the SAM tool relies upon the teaching/learning process concept based on L.S. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive growth. SAM is noted for the embedded diagnostic mechanism that provides information on the quality of knowledge acquisition. The SAM model can be used in the assessment of knowledge acquisition of a number of different school subjects.

To date over 14000 students have taken the SAM test. The results of the testing has passed psychometric research thus confirming its validity and reliability. In 2012 SAM passed an international expert review organized by the World Bank.

SAM is designed to be used at the school level as a mean of monitoring the educational process, as well as at the local educational system level that includes government bodies, the institute of advanced training and research institutions.

CICED constantly work on expansion of the bank of items for SAM in mathematics and continues SAM development for other school subjects and other levels of school education. Circle of works

More information about SAM can be found here: